The Puno Region, and especially the Lake Titicaca basin, has a long and rich history. It is thought humans first arrived in the area around 8000BC, by the Upper Formative Period (approx 500BC-400AD) the main cultures were the Pucara to the north of Lake Titicaca and Tiwanaku to the south in what is now Bolivia. Pucara collapsed as a power around 200-300AD, Tiwanaku continued to expand as an empire and at its peak (800-900AD) controlled an area covering much of what is now southern Peru, highland Bolivia and northern Chile. Tiwanaku's influence declined dramatically around 1000AD, leaving the region divided between a number of smaller but still powerful local kingdoms. The main Inca expansion into the area (which they called Collasuyu, the southern quarter of the empire) took place in the early 1400s and was met with fierce resistance by many of the local tribes. By approx 1450-1475 the Inca had gained control of much of the area.